My research is focused on American politics and political communication and media. In particular I am focused on major changes in political communication over time and the intersection of the internet and politics.

You can find my research on google scholar here

the only constant is change cover



The Only Constant is Change: Technology, Political Communication, and Innovation Over Time. Oxford University Press. 2018. Available at OUP: and Amazon:, PDF Draft Version

Summary: Over the course of American political history, political elites and organizations have often updated their political communications strategies in order to achieve longstanding political communication goals in more efficient or effective ways. But why do successful innovations occur when they do, and what motivates political actors to make choices about how to innovate their communication tactics? 

Covering over 300 years of political communication innovations, The Only Constant is Change shows how this process of change happens and why. To do this, Epstein, following an interdisciplinary approach, proposes a new model called “the political communication cycle” that accounts for the technological, behavioral, and political factors that lead to revolutionary political communication changes over time. These changes (at least the successful ones) have been far from gradual, as long periods of relatively stable political communication activities have been disrupted by brief periods of dramatic and permanent transformation. These transformations are driven by political actors and organizations, and tend to follow predictable patterns. 

The Only Constant is Change moves beyond the technological determinism that characterizes communication history scholarship and the medium-specific focus of much political communication work. The book identifies the political communication revolutions that have, in the United States, led to four, relatively stable political communication orders over history: the elite, mass, broadcast, and (the current) information orders. It identifies and tests three phases of each revolutionary cycle, ultimately sketching possible paths for the future. The Only Constant is Change offers readers and scholars a model and vocabulary to compare political communication changes across time and between different types of political organizations. This provides greater understanding of where we are currently in the recurring political communication cycle, and where we might be headed.

Journal Articles:

The (Surprisingly Interesting) Story of Email in the 2016 Presidential Election (co-authored with Jeffrey Broxmeyer). Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 2020 17 (3).

Wait Haven’t We Been Here Before A Method for Using History to Help Political Communication Scholarship, published in Political Communication, 2020

Explaining the Varying Levels of Adoption of E-government Services in American Municipal Government (co-authored with Jennifer Connolly and Leticia Bode) published in State and Local Government Review, 2018.

Campaign Klout: Measuring Online Influence During the 2012 Election (co-authored with Leticia Bode) published in the Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 2015.

Edited Volume:

“Why Regulating Disinformation Online is So Difficult.” Chapter included in edited volume entitled Modern History of the Disinformation Age. Forthcoming 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press.


“Do Squeaky Wheels Get the Grease? Local Government Responsiveness to Twitter and Email Requests.” With Leticia Bode and Jennifer Connolly.

Other Research Projects:

  • E-government development over the past 20 years.
  • How marginalized groups have innovated their political communication strategies historically and in the modern hybrid media system.
  • The impact of personal technology use by students on learning (with Molly Andolina from DePaul University)
  • How to implement more effective web-based instruction for political science instructors.
  • the 2016 Presidential election as a case study of where we are currently in the Political Communication Cycle (PCC), the multistage recurring process that is central to my recent book The Only Constant is Change.
  • Review of Pedagogical Training in Political Science PhD Granting Institutions. Initial APSA grant development underway. (with Ian Hartshorn)



The Revolution Will Not Be Televised Anymore: New Technology, Political Choice, and Changes in Political Communication from the Newspaper to the Internet, City University of New York Graduate Center, 2011.

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